The first Martyrs

 

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In the book of Judges, Gideon is called to defeat the Midianites. His army is too big for that, so he is told to send many soldiers home:

And the Lord said to Gideon, “The people who are with you are too many for Me to give the Midianites into their hands, lest Israel claim glory for itself against Me, saying, ‘My own hand has saved me.’ Now therefore, proclaim in the hearing of the people, saying, ‘Whoever is fearful and afraid, let him turn and depart at once from Mount Gilead.’” And twenty-two thousand of the people returned, and ten thousand remained. (Judges 7, 2-3)

This event happened near the spring of Harod, in the Jezreel valey. This place is more than 25 KM (15 miles) from Mount Gilead.

But the origin in Hebrew says something a little different. It is said to the people that are afraid to ‘go and watch from Mount Gilead’. In Hebrew the verb is “Yitzpor” (יִצְפֹּר) which means to ‘watch as a bird’.

So the people that were afraid were instructed to watch the battle from the mountain. Going 15 miles away may be too far to watch.

Moreover, Mount Gilead is where the Midianites came from. It does not make sense to send the people that are afraid out of their land to the land of the enemy.

How can we explain this?

The Hebrew meaning of Gilead

The Hebrew language in the Biblical times did not have vowel points. The vowel points were introduced into Hebrew only during the middle ages.

So if we take the Hebrew word ‘גלעד’ – Gil’ad, we can also pronounce it Gal’ed.

Both of those appear in the Bible with different meanings: Gil’ad is the name of the mountain ridge east to the Jordan river, whereas Gal’ed means a heap of stones.

Up on mount Gilboa – this is the mountain beneath which Spring of Harod flows – up on the mountain was found an ancient heap of stones – Gal’ed. Can this be the place where the people who were afraid were sent to watch? It is quite probable…

pile-of-stones

 

Another heap of stones

The word Gal’ed means a heap of stones, but literally it means a “heap of stones as witness”. ‘Gal’ is a heap of stones, ‘Ed’ is a witness.

This word is used in the bible when Jacob and Laban set a covenant:

44 “Now therefore, come, let us make a covenant, you and I, and let it be a witness between you and me”. 45 So Jacob took a stone and set it up as a pillar. 46 Then Jacob said to his brethren, “Gather stones.” And they took stones and made a heap, and they ate there on the heap. 47 Laban called it Jegar Sahadutha, but Jacob called it Gal’ed48 And Laban said, “This heap is a witness between you and me this day.” Therefore its name was called Gal’ed, 49 also Mizpah, because he said, “May the Lord watch between you and me when we are absent one from another. (Genesis 31, 44-49)

Let’s read these verses carefully:

Laban and Jacob want to make a covenant. They need to make some physical witness for their covenant. What do they do?

  1. So first they put a pillar from a stone.
  2. Then they gather stones and build a heap of them
  3. Then they eat on the heap.
  4. Laban calls the heap: “Jegar Sahadutha” and Jacob calls it: “Gal’ed“.
  5. They proclaim that the heap is a witness between them
  6. They give it another name “Mizpah“, which means a point of watching.

One interesting point here is that the heap of stones is used as a witness for covenant, but also a place for watching. This is very much like our story with Gideon: The people that were afraid were sent to the place of watching which is also the witness heap of stones.

jacob_and_labans_covenant_1168-11

 

What is Jegar Sahadutha ?

Laban and Jacob call the heap the same name but each in his language. Jacob use Hebrew, therefore he calls it Gal’ed. Laban is Aramaic, and uses the Aramaic Language. Jegar Sahadutha in Aramaic is the same as Gal’ed in Hebrew: Jegar: heap of stones, Sahadutha – witness.

The Aramaic Language is very close to the Hebrew Language. Some parts in the Bible are written in Aramaic (chapters in Daniel and Ezra) and for the Hebrew reader are not very difficult to understand. Those two languages are Semitic languages.

Arabic is also a Semitic Language, but in a way not as close to Aramaic as Hebrew.

Still here, we find a word that is common to Aramaic and Arabic but not to Hebrew:

The word is ‘Sahaduta.

In Islam, the Arabic word Shahada is the testimony of a believer in his belief, that is said by each Muslim every day. From it was derived the word ‘Shahid‘ which means a person that manifests his belief. Today, Shahid means a person that kills himself with heretics to manifest his belief, but this is not the original meaning.

This concept is probably taken from Christianity, where the term Martyr, a Greek word that means the same thing, was used by the first christian believers much before Islam was founded.

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Summary

We saw here that the physical witness  – a heap of stones – was very important in the ancient Biblical times.

The Arabic word Shahid, is close to the word Sahadutha from the Bible and has the same meaning: Witness. The concept of Shahid was not invented by Islam but existed in early Christianity as Martyr.

Many ideas that we see in Islam, were originated from the Bible and from Christianity,  But Islam gave them some twist.

How Arab villages in Israel affirm the correctness of the Bible

Throughout history, Bible scholars were looking for evidence of the Bible stories in the land of Israel. Many were looking for names of places that appear in the Bible and trying to identify where they are.

The modern archaeology in Israel and modern Bible research are very serious in the way they examine the evidences. In very few places there were findings that had the name of the city written on a piece of clay. One famous example is the city of Gezer: Close to the site that is known as Tel Gezer, was found a stone on which it was engraved in ancient Hebrew: “Boundary of Gezer”:

boundary_of_gezer_inscription

So in all other archaeological sites, how can we be sure whether the site represents an ancient Biblical site?

The answer is not so simple. In many cases there is a context of the findings that resembles the site. For example a palace or administrative building. Sometimes the geographical description in the bible appears the same as we see the place today.

But in the land of Israel, there is a spacial aid that comes from an unexpected source.

The Arab names

In Israel there are many Arab towns and villages that preserve the names of cities from the time of the Bible. This is a phenomenon that is very unique to Israel: Although this land was conquered so many times during history, and each conqueror wanted to leave his mark on the land, miraculously, many of the Biblical names still exist today. And they were preserved by the Arabs!

In the modern Biblical geography research, the Arab names play a crucial role as an evidence for the correctness of the Bible. There are hundreds of them and we will bring just a few examples.

The Border of Ephraim and Manasseh

The lot fell to the children of Joseph from the Jordan(1), by Jericho(2), to the waters of Jericho(2) on the east, to the wilderness that goes up from Jericho(2) through the mountains to Bethel(3), then went out from Bethel(3) to Luz(4), passed along to the border of the Archites at Ataroth(5), and went down westward to the boundary of the Japhletites, as far as the boundary of Lower Beth Horon(6) to Gezer(7); and it ended at the sea. (Joshua 16, 1-3)

The verses above describe the southern border of Ephraim (referred here as Joseph). Let’s look at each of the places marked with numbers 1 to 7 and see what is the Arab parallel:

  1. Jordan river. Hebrew – יָּרְדֵּן. In Arabic: Urdun (الأردن)
  2. Jericho. Hebrew – יְרִיחוֹ. The citi is called in Arabic: ‘ariha (أريحا )
  3. Bethel. Hebrew – בֵּית אֵל. The meaning of this name is “House of God”. “Beth” is house. Archaeologists identify the place with the Arab Village Biatin (بيتين). It is interesting to note that there was another “Bethel” in the inheritance of Ephraim, where Deborah would sit: And she would sit under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the mountains of Ephraim (Judges 4,  5).  There is an Arab village today called Beitillu (بيتللو) that is identified with this other Bethel.
  4. Luz. Hebrew – לוּז. This is the previous name of Bethel. Jacob changed its name: And he called the name of that place Bethel; but the name of that city had been Luz previously (Genesis 28, 19). 
  5. Ataroth. Hebrew – עַטְרוֹת. An Arab village there is called: ‘Atara (عطارة)
  6. Lower Beth Horon. Hebrew – בֵּית חוֹרוֹן תַּחְתּוֹן. In Arabic: Beit Ur alttahta (بيت عور التحتى). “alttahta” in Arabic means “lower”. So the name of the village is literally “Lower Beth Ur”. The sound of Horon is close to Ur and the whole meaning is similar.
  7. Gezer. Hebrew – גזר. The hill (“Tel”) on which the ancient city was found, is called by the Arabs:  “Tel Jazar”. “Tel” is hill in both Hebrew and Arabic. Jazar and Gezer are similar as the ‘G’ in Hebrew is replaceable with ‘J’ in Arabic.

Based on the above we can now draw the border of Ephraim. Similarly we can draw most of the borders between the tribes.

 

tribe-of-ephraim

The Beloved Friend and the Judge

Even more fascinating than the above example, is the fact that some names were preserved not by their phonetic sound but by their meaning.

For example, the city of Jerusalem is called by the Arabs “Al-Quds” (القدس) which means “The Holy”. In the Arab books from the Middle Ages the city is often called “bayt almuqaddas” (بيت المقدس) which is translated to “The Temple”.

So Arabs in the Middle Ages acknowledged that Jerusalem is the place of the Jewish Temple!

But there was never any doubt about the identification of Jerusalem, as this is a city that Jews almost always inhabited.

Another one is Hebron. The Arabs calls it Al-Khalil (الْخَلِيل‎‎). And its meaning is “The beloved friend”. The beloved friend refers to Abraham as he is a friend of God and is buried in Hebron. It is interesting in this regard, that the word Hebron comes from the Hebrew root H.B.R. which means “friend”.

But the most surprising one is the city of Dan. Let’s read from the Bible:

And they called the name of the city Dan, after the name of Dan their father, who was born to Israel. However, the name of the city formerly was Laish (Judges 18, 29)

The archaeological site of Tel Dan is a hill (Tel) near the spring of Dan which is the biggest spring in Israel. very interesting stuff was found in the excavations there. The most important findings are the Canaanite gate, The massive Israelite wall and the Tel Dan Stele on which the House of David the king is mentioned.

But the name of the Tel in Arabic does not sound like Dan. It is “tal alqadi” ( تل القاضي).

Tal alqadi in Arabic means: The hill of the Judge. And who is the Judge? “Dan” is the name of the son of Jacob, and the tribe. But the meaning of the word Dan in Hebrew is “Judge”.

So we see here that the meaning of the name was translated to Arabic and this is the new name of the place.

 

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Tel Dan Stele

Summary

There are many more examples that include names of cities or mountains and valleys. Not all the examples are from the Bible. There are Arab names that preserve more recent names that appear first in the New Testament or in the Talmud.

What is important is that the local Arabs of Israel help us a lot in the research of Biblical Geography.

A Mustard Seed

“…The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field, which indeed is the least of all the seeds; but when it is grown it is greater than the herbs and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and nest in its branches.

(Mathew 13, 31-32)

 

Seeds of mustard and a mustard flower:   mustard-seeds

Many people that read the verse above from Mathew, tend to think that the mustard is a big tree.

Well, this is not the case. In Israel the mustard is a very common wild weed that grows almost everywhere except for the desert. It has yellow flowers and a strong odor of mustard. During the spring it paints the fields with a strong color.

Wild Mustard field in Golan heights:18127405

The mustard is very known in Israel as a herb and a medicine. People used in the time of Yeshua, and until today it is used by the local people as a vegetable and as a medicine.

Mustard condiment is made from the seeds. 20091007-mustard-yellows

So why does Yeshua uses the mustard in his parable?

The reason is that the mustard weed grows very fast: It sprouts in the beginning of the winter, and by the end of the spring it gets to be higher than the height of a person. In the summer it dies and becomes a thorn.

Small birds use the mustard weed to build their nests.

A bird (bunting) on a dry mustard in Golan Heights in the autumn: גבתון עפרוני

A mustard stem is used for a crown:mustard_crown

 

 

 

The base of the Menorah

“You shall also make a lampstand (menorah) of pure gold; the lampstand shall be of hammered work. Its shaft, its branches, its bowls, its ornamental knobs, and flowers shall be of one piece…”

(Exodus 25, 31)

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The description of the Menorah in Exodus 25 is very detailed. but try now the following exercise: read the description – Exodus 25, 31-40. Now try to draw the Menorah in your mind just from the writing. You will very soon see that the written description is not enough. The many details that we see in the Menorah as we know it from eye sight is not completely covered in this description.

But we know that Bezalel the son of Uri made the Menorah after Moses’s instructions (Exodus 38,22).

The original Menorah from the second temple was lost in Rome after the destruction of the temple in 70 A.D.

People in modern Israel tried to draw and remake the Menorah from the model that they had in mind. What was the model that they used?

The most common and famous model is on the arch of Titus in ancient Rome.

 

menorah-titus

The interesting part of it is the base. In the arch of Titus, there is a base that looks like an hexagonal box of two parts – a smaller part on top of a bigger part, and is decorated with drawings.

Menorah drawings in ancient synagogues

The Menorah was found in some mosaics on floors of several ancient synagogues.

Synagogue of Maon:  7d585800-8cbc-4002-a521-df3f0b41ea0c_big

Synagogue in Hamat Tiberias: %d7%a4%d7%a1%d7%99%d7%a4%d7%a1-%d7%9e%d7%a0%d7%95%d7%a8%d7%94-%d7%97%d7%9e%d7%aa-%d7%98%d7%91%d7%a8%d7%99%d7%94-%d7%a6%d7%99%d7%9c%d7%9d-%d7%a9%d7%99-%d7%90%d7%a9%d7%9b%d7%a0%d7%96%d7%99-jpg5

Note that those Menoras have three lion legs and not the hexagonal boxes!

Menorah on coins

A coin from the time of the Maccabee kings, 37 BC, show a different base. A round wide base.

This image also appears on the 10 Agorot of modern Israel today.

The Maccabees coin:coin_issued_by_mattathias_antigonus_c_40bce

The 10 Agorot: israel_10_agorot_1985_edge_obverse__reverse

So how did the base of the Menorah look like?

A few years ago, an important stone was found in the synagogue of Magdala near the Sea of Galilee.

On that stone, there is a carving of the Menorah:

 

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This carving is not very sophisticated, but resembles the base that is seen on the coin from the Maccabees. A round wide base. No lion legs and no hexagon boxes.

The importance of this stone, is that it was made in the first century A.D. in the time of Yeshua and of Mary Magdalene who came from the village of Magdala.

So this carving was done by an artist that saw the Menorah in the Temple before it was destructed.

We can be quite sure that this is how the Menorah looked like.

What about the other bases that were found?

The bases that look like lion legs are all from mosaics in synagogues from the Byzantine period. They are dated to the third to sixth centuries. The artists that made them did not see the original Menorah and therefore they are not authentic.

It is possible that this is the idea that the people had about the Menorah in the Byzantine time, as they could not see it.

And what about the base seen in the arch in Rome?

The carving on the arch of Titus if very precise. But there is a real problem about it. There are drawings on the base that look like pagan drawings.

Some researchers suggest that the base that appears in this image was made by the Romans when they took it to Rome. The original base is either hidden inside this box or was broken and replaced by the box.

What is the Color of the Tsitsit

“Speak to the children of Israel, and bid them make fringes in the corners of their garments throughout their generations, putting upon the fringe of each corner a thread of blue. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that you may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the Lord, and do them.”

(Numbers 15, 38-39)

Orthodox Jews, use Talit – prayer shawl – in their prayer, that has fringes – tsitsit.

They also wear Talit Katan – small prayer shawl below their shirts. this Talit Katan also has four fringes – tsitsit.

Those two customs are taken from the law as appears in Numbers 15, 38-39. See above.

In the English translation we read that there is supposed to be a thread of blue in the tsitsit. Is this right?

ancient-tekhelet

 

The color blue in the bible

The translation of the word blue comes from the Hebrew word “Tekhelet” (תְכֵלֶת). This word appears in the bible 48 times. Most of the times in the description of the tabernacle as given by Moses.

In 26 of those cases we see three colors mentioned together: blue, purple and scarletIn Hebrew: Tekhelet, Argaman and Tola’at-Shani (וּתְכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי)

“Moreover thou shalt make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims of cunning work shalt thou make them”

(Exodus 26,1)

In other 6 occasions, only blue and purple without scarlet:

“Silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the workman, and of the hands of the founder: blue and purple is their clothing: they are all the work of cunning men.”

(Jeremiah 10, 9)

But according to bible scholars, those blue, purple and scarlet are not colors, but rather materials.

In fact, the words blue, purple and scarlet never appear in the bible as a colors, but always as a materials that are used in cloths.

Because blue and purple appear so many times together, we may get to the conclusion that they are in fact the same material or two variants of one material.

But what is this material and what was its color? And why do we translate it to what we know today as blue, purple and scarlet?

Some more light on our question

As mentioned above, the bible does not give a hint to what the color of the material “Tekhelet” is.

In the Talmud, that was written between the third and fifth centuries AD, we read that there are white and blue (Tekhelet) threads in the tsitsit. It tells us that the “Tekhelet is like the sea, and the sea is like the skies, and the skies are like the Throne” (Masekhet Minkhot 43, Beit)

We can conclude then, that the color is really blue.

Can we? not really…

In another place in the Talmud it is written that the “Tekhelet is like the sea, and the sea is like the grass, and the grass is like the Throne”. (Berakhot 7, Beit)

So according to this quote, the Tekhelet is green!

Fortunately, we got another quote from the Talmud that teaches us some more facts about the Tekhelet:

“This snale, its body is like the ocean …. and with its blood the Tekelet is dyed, and therefore its blood is very expensive” (Menakhot 44, Alef)

So the Tekhelet is a pigment that was created from a snail!

And indeed, we know that the Phoenicians had an industry of manufacturing dye color from marine snails. Evidences for that industry were found in some of the antique Phoenician cities in Israel.

There are two species of marine snails from which the dye was produced:

Hexaplex trunculus hexaplex_trunculus_l

Murex brandaristyrianpurpleimages

The colors produced from those snails were dark blue or scarlet.

The knowledge of how to produce the color from snails disappeared in the seventh century after the Muslim conquest of the Middle East.

What is used today as Tekhelet?

It is written in the Talmud:

“Tekhelet is not Kosher unless from the snail. If not from the snail it is disallowed” (Menakhot, 89)

Therefore, until today, Haredi orthodox Jews do not use the Tekhelet in the tsitsit but only white threads.

bs-tzitzit-tallit

However, in Israel today, the production of Tekhelet from the marine snails was renewed and you can get real “Kosher” Tekhelet threads. Many religious Jews these days are starting to wear Talit with Tsitsit that has blue threads in it.

More information about the production of the Tekhelet in this site.

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The narrative of a mountain

In October 2016, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) voted in a resolution that denies Jewish heritage and history to the Temple Mount. The resolution refer to the place only by its Muslim name, “Al-Haram al-Sharif”, and not mentioning its original name, “Temple Mount”.

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Visitors that come to the Temple mount, often wonder how come the Israelis, that got this place in the 6-days war (June 1967) still let the Muslims to control over the place.

Only Muslims are allowed to pray in Temple Mount

In today’s status-quo, Only Muslims are allowed to Pray in the Temple Mount.

Anyone that is not a Muslim: either Jew or Christian, can go up to the Temple Mount but not into the mosques. This can be done only in certain hours, not in weekends, and one is not allowed to pray in the place, and not to bring any Bible, cross or Star of David with him.

Moreover, until last year, Israeli tour guides could not even guide groups in the site, as groups of praying Muslim women would start to shout every time someone spoke in the place.

This rude behavior was stopped by the Israeli police and it is much easier to tour in the place today.

Why did Israel let the Muslims to control the place?

Temple Mount is the most holly place for the Jews, although for centuries they were not allowed to enter or pray in it.

In June 1967, after Israel got east Jerusalem, there was an historical opportunity to set a Jewish rule over the Temple mount.

Moshe Dayan, who was the Minister of Defense in 1967, returned the keys to the Temple Mount to the Muslim Waqf (the religious Muslim property) and took the Israeli flag from Temple Mount immediately after the war ended.

What was the reason he did that? Such an action was not taken in any other part that was taken in 6-days war.

Some people say that Dayan understood the sensitivity of the place and prepared for a peace process in which lands will be returned back to the Kingdom of Jordan. But this does not make a lot of sense as most people in Israel believed that Jerusalem will remain united forever.

A Religious Jewish issue

The reason is different and comes from a religious Jewish consideration that some people do not always understand.

When you enter the Temple Mount, you may notice the following sign before the gate:

Hebrew_domeEntrance_sign.jpg

This sign is only an announcement and warning. But why is it there?

Let’s open our Bible

Now the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying, “This is the ordinance of the law which the Lord has commanded, saying: ‘Speak to the children of Israel, that they bring you a red heifer without blemish, in which there is no defect and on which a yoke has never come. You shall give it to Eleazar the priest, that he may take it outside the camp, and it shall be slaughtered before him; and Eleazar the priest shall take some of its blood with his finger, and sprinkle some of its blood seven times directly in front of the tabernacle of meeting. Then the heifer shall be burned in his sight: its hide, its flesh, its blood, and its offal shall be burned. And the priest shall take cedar wood and hyssop and scarlet, and cast them into the midst of the fire burning the heifer. Then the priest shall wash his clothes, he shall bathe in water, and afterward he shall come into the camp; the priest shall be unclean until evening. And the one who burns it shall wash his clothes in water, bathe in water, and shall be unclean until evening. Then a man who is clean shall gather up the ashes of the heifer, and store them outside the camp in a clean place; and they shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for the water of purification; it is for purifying from sin. 10 And the one who gathers the ashes of the heifer shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until evening. It shall be a statute forever to the children of Israel and to the stranger who dwells among them. (Numbers 19 1-10)

In not so many places in the Torah we get such a detailed explanation of the law and what needs to be done. The issue of the red heifer is very serious because this is the key for purifying people that are unclean. Who is the unclean? People that touched dead bodies.

Since the destruction of the second temple, the breed of red heifers was lost, and all the detailed procedure to prepare water of purification cannot be performed.

The meaning is that almost anyone is unclean and hence, should not enter the holy place of the Temple Mount!

The Chief Rabbinate of Israel warn anyone, in particular Jews, to avoid from entering Temple mount until the Third Temple is built!

Political Wisdom

Moshe Dayan, understood that this place is explosive.

On the one hand, The Muslims ruled the place for centuries and claim that this is the third most holy place for them.

On the other hand, the Jewish Rabbinate do not want Jews to enter the place.

He made a quick decision to keep the status-quo that was before the 6-days war and not to create a new reason for another war.

And he was very right!

The heart of the conflict

The Temple Mount, or Al-Haram al-Sharif as it is called by the Muslims, is being the heart of the religious conflict between Muslims and Jews for 100 years.

The first riots were in 1920, while the British still ruled the place. The Muslims claimed that the Jews want to take over Al-Haram al-Sharif and started murdering Jews.

This happened again and again until in the year 2000, The Muslims started extensive riots that they literally called: “AlAqsa Intifada” (Al-Aqsa is the name of the most holy mosque) .

And today, nothing has changed: you can hear in Muslim media again and again that Israel is aiming to take over Al-Aqsa and all Muslims are called to unite against Israel.