Evidence for Global Climate Change in the Bible?

desert

When Joshua entered the land of Canaan, did he meet the same land with the same climate that we know today?

 The descendants of Joseph came to Joshua and asked, “Why have you given us only one portion of land as our homeland when the Lord has blessed us with so many people?”  Joshua replied, “If there are so many of you, and if the hill country of Ephraim is not large enough for you, clear out land for yourselves in the forest where the Perizzites and Rephaites live.” (Joshua 17:14-15)

When the sons of Joseph are about to conquer their inheritance in the land of Canaan, it seems that the land is covered with forests so they cannot cultivate the land. Where are those forests today?

Then the people went out into the field against Israel, and the battle took place in the forest of Ephraim. The people of Israel were defeated there before the servants of David, and the slaughter there that day was great, 20,000 men. For the battle there was spread over the whole countryside, and the forest devoured more people that day than the sword devoured. (2 Samuel 18:6-8)

When Absalom stirred a rebellion against David, his father, they end up fighting in the forest of Ephraim. later on Absalom was caught by his hair in a big terebinth tree in that forest. Certainly a thick forest!

Then he went up from there to Bethel; and as he was going up by the way, young lads came out from the city and mocked him and said to him, “Go up, you baldhead; go up, you baldhead!” When he looked behind him and saw them, he cursed them in the name of the Lord. Then two female bears came out of the woods and tore up forty-two lads of their number. (2 Kings 2:23-24)

In the story above, Elisha went from the Jordan valley up to the mountains of Bethel. What interests us in this story is the fact that there were bears living in the woods at that area. Today this area is semi-arid.

The land of Israel in the time of the Bible and today

The three stories above, and many others, leads the reader of the Bible to think that the land of Israel is covered with thick forest where numerous beasts live.

When the American author Mark Twain visited the holy land 150 years ago, he was therefore quite surprised to see just the opposite:

“….. A desolate country whose soil is rich enough, but is given over wholly to weeds… a silent mournful expanse…. a desolation…. we never saw a human being on the whole route…. hardly a tree or shrub anywhere. Even the olive tree and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country.”

(The Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrim’s Progress, Mark Twain 1867)

How can we explain the difference between what Mark Twain describes and what the Bible tells about the nature of the land?

The Human intervention theory

In the turn of the 20th century, the Ottomans that were the rulers of the whole middle east, started a project of building the Hejaz Railway – a railway for a train that would go from Damascus to Medina. One branch line from this railway went all the way to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea.

When using a steam locomotive for a train, one needs a lot of wood for burning and generating the steam. It is evident that the Ottomans cut a lot of the woods in the country for the train to operate.

The theory of human intervention claims that because of the railway and also because of overgrazing of the goats of local shepherds, the woods declined dramatically in the end of the 19 century.

As much as the decline of forest in the end of the 19 century is evident, it cannot explain what Mark Twain told us about the land in the middle of the 19 century.

First, when he visited the land in 1867, the Hejaz railway was only a plan. But moreover, the population of the land was scarce. As Twain himself describes: “a desolation…. we never saw a human being on the whole route”. so ‘overgrazing’ does not sound like the real story here.

The Global Climate Change theory

According to this theory, the climate in the time of the bible was different than it is today, and the land of Israel got much more rain compared to our days at that time of Joshua and the kingdoms of Judea and Israel.

There are climatologists that try to show climate changes according to geological evidence. For example: this site.

Do we have any evidence showing that there was more rain in israel in ancient times?

Evidence from the Negev (desert of southern Israel)

In the arid mountains of the Negev, we can find very old terebinth trees of the species: Mt. Atlas mastic tree (Pistacia atlantica)

terebinth

What is interesting about this kind of tree is that it is very common throughout other areas of Israel that are not a desert. But in the mountains of the Negev, this is the only tree that can be found, and most of the individual trees are very old and are estimated to be hundred years old.

This fact led the scholars of botany to believe that those trees were abundant in the Negev a few hundred years ago, or even thousands of years, and the Negev was not so arid as it is today. during the last hundreds of years the Negev became what it is today, and only very old trees remained as living fossils.

Summary

Regardless of what you think about global warming and climate changes, it is quite clear that the land of Israel had more woods and probably more rain in the time of the Bible. The Negev in the time of the Bible was probably wetter and Israel had real natural forests which are rare today.

The weak is strong, the small is wise

RSCN0679

Four things are small on the earth, But they are exceedingly wise:
The ants are not a strong people, But they prepare their food in the summer;
The shephanim are not mighty people, Yet they make their houses in the rocks;
The locusts have no king, Yet all of them go out in ranks;
The lizard you may grasp with the hands, Yet it is in kings’ palaces.

(Proverbs 30:24-28)

The writer of this chapter 30 in Proverbs calls himself Agur the son of Jakeh. We do not know much about him. But he tells us some amazing things about our God and the world he created.

The four verses above describe four small animals that astonish the writer. Those animal, although small, are exceptionally wise.

As mentioned in a previous post and another post, the English translation may have had difficulties in identifying the animal species properly.

Let’s check what are those animals and why the writer chose them as examples:

Ants

This one is the easiest. There is no doubt that the Hebrew word “נְּמָלִים” (Nemalim) means ants. Another Biblical reference describing how diligent the ants are:

Go to the ant, O sluggard, Observe her ways and be wise (Proverbs 6:6)

ants-750x400

Shephanim (Hyrax)

This animal is common in mountains throughout all of Israel. Its scientific name is Procavia capensis, and also known as Rock Hyrax.

The Shephanim – in Hebrew: שָּׁפָן, is easy to identify as it appears as one of four animals that are not “Kosher” because of their external and internal properties:

the shaphan, for though it chews cud, it does not divide the hoof, it is unclean to you (Leviticus 11:5)

In our chapter we learn that the Shephanim (Hyrax) liveד in the rocks, just like in Psalms:

The cliffs are a refuge for the shephanim. (Psalms 104:18)

שפן סלעים

locusts

Locust is known in the Bible as one of the 10 Plagues of Egypt.

According to its taxonomy, locust is just a grasshopper. But under certain circumstances, the locusts change to form swarm that are extremely hazardous to crops.

In our chapter, the writer is amazed from the fact that such a small insect without a leader or king becomes a big harm to humans.

madagascar-locust-IMG_1294

Lizard

There is a disagreement among interpreters whether the animal mentioned in this verse is a gecko or a spider. In Hebrew Smamit – שְׂמָמִית

In any case, it is a small animal that can walk on walls and is found in the most magnificent palaces. It enters to places where most people are not allowed, and makes it its own home.

letaa

Summary

The four verses in our chapter tell us how magnificent is our Lord when he created such small and vulnerable animals, and yet they are so strong in this world.

This whole chapter is about the wonder of our world and how it leads us to know the providence of the Lord. The speaker introduce himself as a stupid man that knows nothing, but the wonders of the world teach him a lesson.

Who has ascended into heaven and descended?
Who has gathered the wind in His fists?
Who has wrapped the waters in His garment?
Who has established all the ends of the earth?
What is His name or His son’s name?
Surely you know! (Proverbs 30:4)

Cohen and Levi. Priests and Sadducees

mishkan

In the days of Herod, king of Judea, there was a priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah; and he had a wife from the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. (luke 1:5)

In the first few verses of the book of Luke, we are told about the genealogy of John the Baptist: His father was from the division of Abijah and his mother from the daughters of Aaron. What does Luke tell us here? and why is this important?

Indeed, for the Jewish readers in the time of Luke, and Jews were the majority of people reading this text in the first century AD, that genealogy was very important and told a lot about the identity of John.

We will start with the conclusion: The parents of John the Baptist were of very dignified priest families.

Now, all is left is to explain this, and we go directly to the Bible.

Tribe of Levi in the desert and in Canaan

When the sons of Israel wandered in the desert, they belonged to twelve different tribes. One of those tribes was Levi. Tribe of Levi is unique and has a special duty:

And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: “Bring the tribe of Levi near, and present them before Aaron the priest, that they may serve him. And they shall attend to his needs and the needs of the whole congregation before the tabernacle of meeting, to do the work of the tabernacle. (Numbers 3:5-7)

In the desert, The lord instructed Moses, when conquering Canaan, to spare cities for the Levites in the lands of the other tribes. They shall not have their own inheritance but rather will live among the other tribes:

And the Lord spoke to Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan across from Jericho, saying: “Command the children of Israel that they give the Levites cities to dwell in from the inheritance of their possession, and you shall also give the Levites common-land around the cities. (Numbers 31:1-2)

In the book of Joshua we learn that there were 48 cities given to the Levites. To name a few: Hebron, Gezer and Shechem.

 

Three families from the tribe of Levi and their roles

The most common surname among Jews today is “Cohen“. Jewish men, sons of Cohen families, are not allowed to marry divorced women (Yes! in Israel today, by law. See Leviticus 21:7). On the bright side, Cohen’s are the ones who come to the stage in the synagogue to bless the “Priestly Blessing” (Birkat Kohanim. also known as Aaronic blessing).

The Jewish surname “Levi” is also very common. But they do not share the same rights and obligations like the “Cohen’s”

The above leads us to the understanding that Cohen (a priest) and Levi are not the same. There is some hierarchy in the tribe of Levi.

In the desert, we learn about three families in the tribe of Levi: Gershon, Kohath and Merari.

The sons of Levi were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. (Genesis 46:11)

Aaron, who is the first priest of Israel (Priest in Hebrew – Kohen כֹּהֵן) came from the family of Kohath.

 

Aaron married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, and she bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. (Exodus 6:23)

In I Chronicles 23-26, the Bible describes in details all the different occupations and roles that the Levites and Kohanim used to have.

The Kohanim were working very hard in the temple with the sacrifices and worshiping with musical instruments. The Levites that were not Kohanim were helping them in the service and by keeping the order in the temple.

But later on, among the Kohanim we see different roles and responsibilities.

Zadok the first high priest

So David reigned over all Israel; and David administered judgment and justice to all his people. 16 Joab the son of Zeruiah was over the army; Jehoshaphat the son of Ahilud was recorder; 17 Zadok the son of Ahitub and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar were the priests. (II Samuel, 8:15-17)

So there are many Kohanim, but Zadok and Ahitub got a special position.

There let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him king over Israel; and blow the horn, and say, ‘Long live King Solomon!’ (I Kings 1:34)

In the time of Solomon, Zadok is nominated to be the priest who can anoint the new king. We see here the beginning of what will become later “High Priest” – a priest with a special status.

Lilien_High_priest

The Sadducees

What we read above was regarding the first temple. During the second temple, a whole new social status emerged:

The Sadducees (Zedukim in Hebrew), were the group of priests that were responsible for the work in the Second temple. The name “Zedukim” might very probably be derived from “Zadok“, the first High Priest. They were considered the spiritual leaders of Judea until the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in 30 AD.

We do not know a lot about them. most of what we know is what other people wrote about them, because after the destruction of the second temple, as they lost their position in the temple, they became irrelevant as spiritual leaders.

One interesting fact that the new testament teaches about the Sadducees that is not known from any other source is that, in contrast to the Pharisees, they did not believe in the resurrection:

Then some Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him; and they asked Him… (Mark 12:18)

Priestly Divisions

Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron… …the eighth to Abijah (I Chronicles 24, 1,10)

The work in the temple was very hard – people come with their sacrifices and they need to be served all the time. In order to help in this work, they move to work in shifts.

Zadok and David divided the work of the Kohanim between 24 men. All descendants of the family of Aaron – Kohath. Those are the priestly divisions or priestly shifts. David and Zadok made the choice by lot. The eighth lot fell to Abijah.

Summary

Looking back to where we started, “a priest named Zacharias, of the division of Abijah“. This tells that not only Zacharias is a priest, but he is a direct descendent of one of the 24 divisions from the time of King David.

“he had a wife from the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.” The wife if from the family of Aaron – the family of the Kohanim. And she is called after Aarons wife – Elisheba. Elizabeth and Elisheba in Hebrew is the same name.

Joshua and Zionism – from trouble to hope

yarkon

1882 is considered the year in that started the Zionist movement. In this year, the first Zionist settlement was established.

The village was founded in a swamp area in the Sharon and was called Petah-Tikva.

Joshua leads the sons of Israel into Canaan

The Taking of Jericho

When the people of Israel entered Canaan from the east, they were not considered Zionists. Zion at that time was a place that they did not hear about yet.

They were commanded to conquer the country from the seven Canaanite nations that inhabited the land.

The first city they conquer and destroy was Jericho. Two spies were sent to the house of Rahab who hidden them. Then the people of Israel marched around the city during seven days and in the seventh day they blew the trumpets and the walls fell down. No doubt that God was with the people of Israel!

Joshua warns the people not to take anything from the city as it is under a ban.

Then, they went on to conquer the second city – Ai, But they fail badly… Something went wrong. Joshua cried to the Lord and asked – Why is that Lord? and the answer came clearly:

Israel has sinned, and they have also transgressed My covenant which I commanded them. For they have even taken some of the accursed things, and have both stolen and deceived; and they have also put it among their own stuff. 12 Therefore the children of Israel could not stand before their enemies, but turned their backs before their enemies, because they have become doomed to destruction (Joshua 7:11-12)

The Lord instructed Joshua how to find the person that did wrong. It came out that it was Achan from the tribe of Judah.

Interestingly, in Chronicles, the name changes from Achan to Achar:

The son of Carmi was Achar, the troubler of Israel, who transgressed in the accursed thing (1 Chronicles 2:7)

This is interesting, because the Hebrew word for “trouler” in the Bible is “Ocher” which is from the same root of the name “Achar” and literally means “bring trouble or darkness“.

Achan with all his family were sentenced to be stoned. Where did that happen? let’s read:

Then they raised over him a great heap of stones, still there to this day. So the Lord turned from the fierceness of His anger. Therefore the name of that place has been called the Valley of Achor to this day (Joshua 7:26)

The Hebrew root A.Ch.R. appears three times in our story:

  • Achar (or Achan) – the name of the sinner
  • Ocher – adjective that means troubler or literally “darkens”
  • Achor – the valley where he was stoned.  Near Jericho.

achan

A prophecy of hope

Let’s move to another book in the Bible. Hosea.

Hosea, speaks about the restoration of Israel.

In the second chapter of the book he compares Israel to a treacherous wife. He describes all her harlotry and unfaithful ways.

But then the Lord takes her to the desert, and there, after all her lovers have left her, the Lord restores Israel. Then Hosea prophesies:

Then I will give her her vineyards from there,
And the valley of Achor as a door of hope (Hosea 2:15)

This verse takes us back to the story of Achan in the valley of Achor.

The Zionist movement begins

In the year of 1872, a few families from Jerusalem tried to buy a land in Jericho and to build a new agricultural village. The name they wanted to give to the village is Petah-Tikva – which means “Door of hope” to fulfill the prophecy of Hosea.

They were not successful in buying the land in Jericho, but ended up buying a swamp area in the Sharon from an Arab family in Jaffa.

The life was too hard in the swamp, and after three years the village was abandoned.

Seven years later, in 1882, the village was restored by new settlers. This year marks the beginning of the first wave of Zionists moving to Israel and building new settlements.

The location of Petah Tikva in the Sharon instead of Jericho is a fulfillment of another prophecy:

Sharon will be a pasture land for flocks,
And the valley of Achor a resting place for herds (Isaiah 65:10)

The Zionist movement, just like Joshua, brought the people of Israel back to their land.

And the city of Petah Tikva is a symbol of the restoration of Israel.

The Red mountains of Edom

Edom2

 

When you drive in The Arava road down the road toward Eilat, you can see the towering mountains of Edom. Those mountains are made of granite and are notable red.

When you read the Bible in Hebrew, it is no surprise that the mountains of Edom are red: the word Edom in Hebrew (אֱדוֹם) is derived from the word red (Adomאדוֹם).

The Edomites, the ancient people who lived in Edom were the descendants of Esau, the brother of Jacob.

And this is the genealogy of Esau the father of the Edomites in Mount Seir. (Genesis 36:9)

Here we see that there is another name for Edom and this is Seir. The name Edom and Seir are interchangeable in the Bible.

For example:

You shall be desolate, O Mount Seir, as well as all of Edom. (Ezekiel 35:15)

The Hairy and Red Esau

The name Seir in Hebrew means “hairy” (שֵׂעִיר). So the mountains of Edom have two names, each has an attribute: Edom – “red” and Seir – “hairy

When Esau was born, as the firstborn twin brother of Jacob, we read that he was “red” and “hairy“. We also hear that he was called Esau because he was hairy

And the first came out red. He was like a hairy garment all over; so they called his name Esau. (Genesis 25:25)

Those two characters of Esau: Red and Hairy play critical roles in his life and his struggles with his twin brother Jacob.

As we remember, Jacob deceived Esau twice:

First time, Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a red stew:

And Esau said to Jacob, “Please feed me with that same red stew, for I am weary.” Therefore his name was called Edom. (Genesis 25:30)

Second time, Jacob steals the blessing of Esau. In order to do so, his mother put fur on his body, so Isaac, whose eyes were dim, would think that this is the “hairy” son – Esau:

And she put the skins of the kids of the goats on his hands and on the smooth part of his neck (Genesis 27:16)

Reconciliation

The story goes on, and after the double deceiving, Jacob has to run away from Esau to Aram. When they meet after many years, Jacob is still afraid that Esau will kill him.

But Esau is happy to meet him!

But Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck and kissed him, and they wept (Genesis 33:4)

The reconciliation, between Israel (Jacob) that deceived his brother and the deceived brother has special meaning in the future and restoration of Israel.

Who is this who comes from Edom,
With dyed garments from Bozrah,
This One who is glorious in His apparel,
Traveling in the greatness of His strength?—

“I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save.”

Why is Your apparel red,
And Your garments like one who treads in the winepress?

“I have trodden the winepress alone,
And from the peoples no one was with Me.
For I have trodden them in My anger,
And trampled them in My fury;
Their blood is sprinkled upon My garments,
And I have stained all My robes.
For the day of vengeance is in My heart,
And the year of My redeemed has come.

(Isaiah 63:1-4)

This beautiful prophecy of Isaiah speaks about the year of redemption.

The redeemer will come from Edom (perhaps a symbol of a betrayed brother?) and will be red like one who treads in the winepress. But the red color is in fact blood!

 

 

Judea and Samaria – The heart of the land of Israel

390849pic_I

So the Lord gave to Israel all the land of which He had sworn to give to their fathers, and they took possession of it and dwelt in it. (Joshua 21:43)

The book of Joshua tells us, in chapter 21,  how the sons of Israel conquered the whole of the land of Canaan.

But then in chapter 23, Joshua says:

See, I have divided to you by lot these nations that remain, to be an inheritance for your tribes, from the Jordan, with all the nations that I have cut off, as far as the Great Sea westward. And the Lord your God will expel them from before you and drive them out of your sight. So you shall possess their land, as the Lord your God promised you.  (Joshua 23:4-5)

This is not clear. Did Israel conquer the whole of Canaan or are there still Canaanites in the land?

In the book of Judges we get the picture: Although the whole of the land was divided between the tribes, there are still many big cities that remain to be conquered:

27 However, Manasseh did not drive out the inhabitants of Beth Shean and its villages, or Taanach and its villages, or the inhabitants of Dor and its villages, or the inhabitants of Ibleam and its villages, or the inhabitants of Megiddo and its villages; for the Canaanites were determined to dwell in that land … 29 Nor did Ephraim drive out the Canaanites who dwelt in Gezer … 30 Nor did Zebulun drive out the inhabitants of Kitron or the inhabitants of Nahalol … 31 Nor did Asher drive out the inhabitants of Acco or the inhabitants of Sidon, or of Ahlab, Achzib, Helbah, Aphik, or Rehob… 33 Nor did Naphtali drive out the inhabitants of Beth Shemesh or the inhabitants of Beth Anath (Joshua 1:27-36)

The map below shows the borders at the end of the book of Joshua.

The pink areas were taken by the sons of Israel, and the green is the remaining land:

conqueredland3

Look carefully at the shape of the conquered land – Does this shape looks familiar?

Now look at the map of Israel in the years between 1948 – 1967 and compare to the map of the conquest:

The conquest of Joshua                                                 Borders of Israel between 1948-1967

compare conquests of joshua with israel

You will find, surprisingly, that the two maps are mirrors for each other!

In the time of Joshua, Judea and Samaria were the main land (in pink), while the rest (in green) is the remaining land.

But in modern Israel, the remaining land of Joshua is the state of Israel, and Judea and Samaria are the “remaining land”!

As much as Judea and Samaria are not considered part of Israel by most of the international community, It is in fact the heart of the land from which the sons of Israel started their conquest.

Anyone who supports the historical right of Israel and the Jews of their historical land, cannot take Judea ans Samaria out of it as it is the “Heart of the Country”.

Roots of Antisemitism in The Bible

prof_zacharia_grt

The word Antisemitism is a modern word that literally means “Hostility to the Semite people”. But from its origin in the 19 century in Germany, the real meaning was “Hate and prejudice against the Jews”.

Although the word is modern, its roots are very old.

Wars and prejudice against people is not something special. In fact, this is something that is common to all the human race in all history and pre-history.

But with the Jews there is something unique, and the fact that there is a special word, that is known internationally, shows that there is something different about hating the Jews.

What is so special? Historically, we can say that in the last 2000 thousand years, Jews were persecuted everywhere they lived, while not having a land of their own (until 1948). This is a very ancient nation that suffers prejudice in every place it is found.

Is there a reason for that?

Let’s open our Bible and check what it has to say about it.

The suffering of the Jews was permitted by the Lord

Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the Angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to oppose him. And the Lord said to Satan, “The Lord rebuke you, Satan! The Lord who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is this not a brand plucked from the fire?” (Zechariah 3:1-2)

This prophecy was given by Zechariah, according to the Bible scholars, around the year 520 BC (more than 2500 years ago).

Note that the Lord rebukes Satan and explains that He chose Jerusalem. Why does he need to rebuke?

We know that Satan cannot do anything without direct permission from the Lord. (See Job 1:12). So the Lord rebukes Satan for what he does to the Jews, but it was done with the Lord’s permission.

Prophecies about antisemitism

And it shall come to pass
That just as you were a curse among the nations,
O house of Judah and house of Israel... (Zechariah 8:13)

Zechariah says that Jews are  “a curse among the nations”.

therefore prophesy, and say, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Because they made you desolate and swallowed you up on every side, so that you became the possession of the rest of the nations, and you are taken up by the lips of talkers and slandered by the people”

‘Thus says the Lord God: “Behold, I have spoken in My jealousy and My fury, because you have borne the shame of the nations.”

(Ezekiel 36:3, 6)

Judea and Israel are “the possession of the nations” and are “taken up by the lips and slanders” of those nations. They become “the shame of the nations“.

Those prophecies predict what we know today: Jews became scattered among all nations, and suffer from mocking, slander and persecutions.

Until when?

If the Lord chose Israel as his people, why does the nation need to suffer so much and until when?

For the first question: why – all the Biblical prophets gave the answer: for neglecting the Lord and following the idolatry of the nations.

For the second question – until when – the Bible is very clear:

22 “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “I do not do this for your sake, O house of Israel, but for My holy name’s sake, which you have profaned among the nations wherever you went. 23 And I will sanctify My great name, which has been profaned among the nations, which you have profaned in their midst; and the nations shall know that I am the Lord,” says the Lord God, “when I am hallowed in you before their eyes. 24 For I will take you from among the nations, gather you out of all countries, and bring you into your own land. 25 Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols. 26 I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. 27 I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do them. 28 Then you shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers; you shall be My people, and I will be your God. (Ezekiel 36:22-28)

Ezekiel wrote more than 2500 years ago exactly what is going to happen:

After the people of Judea and Israel “profaned the name of the Lord” among the nations, The lord will restore them and will bring them back to their land. After that He will clean them from their filthiness. He then will give them a new heart and a new spirit within them.

We can see the restoration of the people of Judea in the land of Israel.

Could this be the beginning of the fulfillment of the prophecy?